Contoh Skripsi Bahasa Inggris Chapter II Tentang Crossword Dan Vocabulary
THE FRAME OF THEORIES, THINKING, AND HYPOTHESIS
2.1 Frame of Theories
2.1.1 Teaching Learning English as a Foreign Language
According to Evans that, “several hundred million people use one or another form of English in their daily working and language demands of higher scientific, technical or commercial and industrial topics with both accuracy and interest has also ensured that English is a universal tool of communication (Evans 1986: 11)
It is clear that English has an important role in improving the social science and humanities of the country since its function as an international language.
So that is why the government makes a great effort by designing a new curriculum to support the English subject to be taught in school. According to Fries, “the goal of teaching English as the foreign language is defined as the ability to use the target language, understand its meaning and connotation in term of the target language and culture. The ability to understand the speech and writing of the target language and culture in term their meaning as well as ideas and achievement”. Fries in Rahmat Wijaya (2006: 7)
The purpose of teaching English as a foreign language provides students are able to communicate with others by using English. As the foreign language, English is not only used in daily interaction in social communication but also they are competence in mastering English. The term “competence” in the curriculum introduced Indonesia seems to be defined in slightly way, competence in curriculum refers to knowledge, skill, and attitude that reflected in daily life (Pusat Kurikulum, 2004)
Teaching English as a foreign language is not the same as teaching English as the second language. Teaching English as foreign is teaching the students in learning the target language in order to be able to use the target language, in this case, English for communication. The learners are expected to be able to express their idea, though, and feelings in English. The learners do not use English outside of the classroom, they just use English when they have English class. Consequently, the learners do not have many opportunities to practice English in their daily activities. Learning and teaching English as a foreign language need the real situation to support the learners to use English naturally. The teacher should bring the real situation in the classroom by giving activities that support students to practice English. The teacher should create the technique of teaching English that based on the real situation that the students can apply and practice the language freely and naturally. But we find in the field that some English as Foreign Language class is taught in a fairly teacher-centered fashion. Interaction is dominated by the teacher who, for example, gives lengthy explanations, lectures, drills repetitively, asks the majority of the questions and makes judgments about the student’s answers (Kurikulum Berbasis Kompetensi).
Based the statement above the writer assumed that the purpose of English as Foreign Language in the class so far the activities learning English as Foreign Language do not support the student or the learners to practice English for commutation They just learn and listen to the teachers explanations do the drills, repetitively and answer the questions given by the teacher. They do not have a chance to use the language that they have learned for real communication.
The method of teaching is introducing students and gives facilities which can make the students can study to adjust the condition in the teaching-learning process. (Brown, 2004: 21)
According to the theory above it is important for the teacher to provide the facilities or media for teaching and learning process. In this research, the writer used pictures as a media to support teaching and learning process by using an Easy Crossword, because the writer thought that An Easy Crossword is the suitable media to support in teaching and learning the process, especially in learning vocabulary.
2.1.2 Concept of Vocabulary
According to Webster, vocabulary is a list of the word usually arranged alphabetically and defined, explained or translated into the rage of language the stock of words at person demand or use in particular work, a branch of the subject. Webster (1988:110)
River said, “It would be impossible to learn a language without vocabulary word.” (River, 1980: 426)
Hornby states that vocabulary is the total number of words which, with a ruler for combining them, make up a language. (Hornby, 1984:959)
Based on the statement above, the writer assumed that vocabulary is essential to learn a language because whenever we think of language and language learning we usually think of mastery vocabulary, therefore, vocabulary is vital to the language because it would be impossible to learn the language. We have known that vocabulary together with pronunciation and structure is language component it can not be separated from the language, so we have to teach vocabulary in context because sometimes, English word has more one meaning by having enough vocabulary it will be easier for student’s in comprehending the text and in expressing ideas in speaking and writing.
Robert Lado, in his book, gives a definition of active and passive vocabulary as follows:
“An active speaking vocabulary means that a unit can be recalled almost instantaneously, put into sound through the articulation of its phonemes, place in its proper stress and intonation frame, into its inflectional and derivational affixes and accord with the context the passive reading vocabulary requires only grasping the meaning from its partly redundant context.” (Robert Lado, 1980:185)
Someone that uses their vocabulary rightly in their daily conversation and active means that they have an active vocabulary in passive reading that has repetition in the context means that they have the passive vocabulary. We learn vocabulary to know the meaning of words, to understand the meaning of the words, we do not just remember or write the words hat the teacher gives. So in learning vocabulary, we should use the words in learning to speak and writing English.
Wallace states, “Learning of foreign language basically a matter of learning the vocabulary of language not being able to find the words you need to express yourself is the most frustrating experience in speaking another language. (Wallace, 1983:9)
Based on the statement above, the writer assumed that learning a foreign language is the basic language we should understand the meaning of their vocabulary because if we do not understand vocabulary we will get trouble to express our ideas.
Furthermore, Faerch stated it is in fact, more accurate to view vocabulary knowledge as a continuum between the ability to make sense of words and the ability to activate the words automatically for productive purpose. He also states that to fully know a foreign language thus requires that learner:
1. Is able to recognize it in is spoken and written form.
2. Is able to recall it at will?
3. Is able to relate it to appropriate objects or concept (i, e, knows the full meaning potential of the word and not just one specific meaning).
4. Can use it in the appropriate grammatical forms.
5. Liable to pronounce it in a recognizable way.
6. Can spell it correctly.
7. Knows in what ways it can combine with other words.
8. Know the relation between the word and another word within a lexical set (hyponym, antonym, etc).
9. Is aware of its connotation and association, and
10. Can use it on the appropriate level of formality and in the appropriate situation.
(Faerch, 1984: 100)
Based on the statement above, the writer assumed that is meant by mastering English vocabulary does that know the meanings of an English word and being able to use word appropriately in variation context. In order to fill it, the teacher should provide students a lot of opportunities to make sentences and to use English for communication based on the English vocabulary they have learned, so that the students may develop their vocabulary rapidly.
Brown puts forward some guideline for vocabulary instructional as follows:
1. Allocate specific class time to vocabulary learning. In the hustle and bustle of our interactive classroom sometimes we get so caught up in lively group work and meaningful communication that we do not pause to devote some attention to words.
2. Help the student to learn vocabulary in context the best internalization of vocabulary, comes from encounters (comprehension and prediction) with words within the context of surround dry discourse.
3. Play down the role of the bilingual dictionaries.
4. Encourage students to the development strategies for determining the meaning of words.
Kustarjo said that there are five ways of teaching vocabulary:
1. Teaching vocabulary through creativity. It is mean that a teacher should allow the students to decide what they want to learn. A teacher can use such technique which enables the students to be creative in producing the vocabulary such realia, picture, puzzle games, etc.
2. Teaching vocabulary through derivation which involves noun, verb, adjective, and adverb, for example, to a word (verb), worker (noun) etc.
3. Teaching vocabulary trough translation. This method is considered an enceinte one. Here the teacher teaches the meaning of the word trough translation. For example, the word “lovely” in Indonesia means “Indah”.
4. Teaching vocabulary through guessing, here the teacher can encourage the students to guess first and then consult their dictionary. To guess right, students have a good rationale. The teacher can draw five pictures on the board. The teacher then pronounces a word and asks one the students to point to of one the pictures. Students’ think of relevant to the word pronounces by the teacher.
5. Teaching vocabulary through context clues. Here the teacher can use context clues in word recognition by figuring out the meaning of a word based on the clues in the context, for example, by giving the synonym, antonym, etc.
From guideline above, in order to make students more enthusiastic about learning vocabulary and the teacher should active and creative invite students more enjoyable in learning English. In this case, An Easy Crossword is very helpful for the teacher to do her activity. So the writer thinks that the teacher can create some appropriate situation in teaching vocabulary. This means that the teacher not only gives material but can also make the teaching-learning process live enjoyable can also be accepted by the students.
2.1.3 Concept of Teaching Vocabulary
The students always find a problem in mastering the vocabulary, because of that the teacher should find the suitable way in teaching learning process in order to make the students desire and to give the motivation in learning.
Vocabulary is the vital aspect of the language and plays a very important role in teaching the language. (Wallace, 1988:9)
There some types of vocabulary in English. Fries (1974) classified English word into four groups, namely:
1. The content word represents the name of an object or thing. That is a concrete noun cat, (this is a nice cat). The action did by or with these things, (The dog barks loudly). Eat (the horse eat grass), and the qualities of the things, that is adjectives, e.g. tame (sheep is the tame animal), fat (this elephant is fat).
2. Function words are those words which are used as a means of expressing the relation of grammatical structure, such as conjunction, e.g. and, but, or. Article e.g. a, an, the auxiliaries e.g. do, does, did.
3. Substitute words those which represent individual things or specific action as substitutes, e.g. anybody, anyone. (Does anyone like a flower?)
4. Distributed words, those are distributed in use to grammatical matter as the presence or absence of a negative, such as any, either, too, or yet. e.g. (The cat is too big), (we see many animals in the zoo).
There are some ways in teaching vocabulary base on Scott Thornby (2002):
Knowing the word is one thing, in learning their first language the first words that children learn are typically those used for labeling.
In other words, acquiring a vocabulary requires not only labeling but categorizing skill. The child needs to realize that common words can be replaced by superordinate terms and that it can accommodate other lower order words.
Network Building is constructing a complex web of words include interconnected.
Sutarjo (1988) says that there are four ways of teaching vocabulary:
1. Teaching vocabulary through creativity. The teacher should allow the student to decide what they want to learn. The teacher can make such technique which enables the student to be creative in producing vocabulary such as picture, puzzle, game, etc.
2. Teaching vocabulary through derivation which involves noun, verb, adjective, and adverb. For example: to work (verb), worker (noun), etc.
3. Teaching vocabulary through translation. This method is considered as ancient one, here the teacher teaches the meaning of the word through translation. For example, the word lovely in Indonesian means Indah.
4. Teaching vocabulary through guessing. Here the teacher can encourage the student to guess first and then consult with their dictionary. To guess right, a student should have a good rationale. The teacher can draw five pictures on the board, then pronounced a word and ask one of the students to point one of the pictures. The students should think something that has relevance to the word that pronounced by the teacher.
Teaching vocabulary through context clues. Here the teacher can use context clues in word recognition by figuring out the meaning of a word based on the clues in the context. For example: by giving a synonym, antonym and etc.
2.1.4. Concept of Game
“The emphasis in the game is on successful communication rather than connect ness of language” (Jill, 1990).
Games are an activity with a rule, a goal and an element of fun. Games, therefore, are to be found at the fluency end of the fluency-accuracy spectrum. This raises the questions of how and where they should be used in the class. The game should be regarded as an integral part of the language syllabus. Games are competition among players, which the children can learn to play to get information, make creative, motivated, and make the students interest with the technique of strategy game that the teacher gives. Teaching learning process by using game would seem easier because the game can be applied to all students’ level from children to the adult student.
It means that the game can be used to leads the student in learning the process as long as the game does not make their feel bore in teaching learning activity.
Games are competition among players, which the children can learn to play to get information, make creative, motivated, and make the students interest with the technique of strategy game that the teacher gives. Teaching learning process by using game would seem easier because the game can be applied to all students’ level from children to the adult student.
Collin Petter and Neus Valls said that game has educational value, which goes beyond the foreign language lesson. They teach children about the nature of cooperative since they require a great variety of strategies. There are various types of language games available for teaching vocabulary at senior high school. They are:
1. Board Game
2. Jumbled Letter
3. An Easy Crossword
4. Picture Cards
5. Bingo Cards
6. Word Pyramid
The games are very useful and interesting to be applied when the students feel bored in learning vocabulary. (Collin Petter and Neus Valls 1985:1).
The games are very useful and interesting to be applied when the students feel bored in learning vocabulary. It is expected that by applying games in vocabulary and could making their vocabulary be better because in performing the games, both teacher and students use the target language that is English.
It means the teaching-learning process using game can motivate students to think and make the students active in learning.
2.1.5 Concept of an Easy Crossword
Easy is simple general knowledge of crossword puzzles.
Easy is the most popular word game in the world, generally, the solver of easy crossword can complete the grid in a few minutes and move on to the next puzzle. (www.kentuckycrosswords.com)
Think of this crossword as a Venn diagram consisting of two sets, one right side up, the other rotated 180 degrees. The shaded section in the middle represents the overlap of the two sets, with answers in this area working for both sets. How is this possible? All will become clear as you solve the puzzle. The puzzle also contains 12 clues related to the article that appeared in Scientific American in 2006. One for each month. Visuals from the referenced article frame the grit. (www.sciam.com/on the web and in next month’s issue)
The crossword puzzle is a puzzle in which words corresponding to numbered clues are to be found and corresponding to numbered clues are written into squares in the puzzle.(www.wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn)
Crossword is a word puzzle that normally takes the form of a square or rectangular grid of black and white squares. The goal is to fill the white squares with letters, forming words or phrases, by solving clues which lead to the answers. (www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/crossword)
A word puzzle in which interlocking words are entered usually horizontally and vertically into a grid based on clues given for each word. (www.en.wikitionary.org/wiki/crossword)
Crossword puzzles for studying English vocabulary crossword with pictures as hits or definitions as hits (www.charleskelly.com)
This game is played by filling the white squares with letters, this game is needed more than one student so that, it can help the student to compete with another student and will make them enjoy and fun.
Based on the statement above, the writer assumed that by applying An Easy Crossword the students will try to be more active and creative reinforce their vocabulary that has been taught. So it is hoped this game can help students to increase their vocabulary.
2.1.6. The Procedures of Teaching Vocabulary
1. The teacher explains the meaning of an easy crossword and how to play an easy crossword.
2. The teacher distributes a copy of worksheet and picture to each student.
3. The students roll to see the pictures. Moreover, they fill the white squares with letters. He/she must give a correct letter. If not, the turn passes to the next student. The player should not discuss the correct answer when a correct answer has been given since another player may land on that same space and have a chance to give an answer.
4. Find the player that has answered correctly and given him/her a gift. Moreover, find the player that has answered incorrectly and give him/her punish.
2.1.7 The Advantages and Disadvantages of Using an Easy Crossword
The advantages of using an easy crossword:
1. Students are motivated to think actively.
2. Teaching by using game makes the students increasing learning English unconsciously.
3. The teaching-learning process becomes more interesting and enjoyable.
4. Give the students the opportunity to express their skills.
5. Know how far the students’ mastery of grammar had been taught.
The disadvantages of using an easy crossword:
1. The teacher will be difficult to control the class.
2. The class will be crowded.
The indicator of the Teaching and Learning Vocabulary Process:
1. Learning Vocabulary in Listening
Give a respond based on the situation of the curriculum material.
The dialog of Occupation and Profession
A: Who is Mr. Smith?
B: He is an English teacher.
2. Learning Vocabulary in Speaking
Give an instruction based on the situation of the curriculum material.
The list of school facilities
Chair- Marker- Blackboard/ whiteboard
Parking area – Library – Computer laboratory
Classroom – Toilet – Field
3. Learning Vocabulary in Reading
Read the vocabulary correctly
Food and Drink
Bread – Chicken
Soup – Milk
Tea – Juice
4. Learning Vocabulary in Writing
Arrange the vocabulary letter correctly
Kind of Clothes
aoct = coat
resds = dress
stanp = pants
The students’ characteristic of vocabulary mastery:
1. The students can use their new vocabulary in a sentence of speaking and writing.
2. The students can interact and communication by using new vocabulary that they have learned in their daily live
2.1.8 The Frame of Thinking
Every teacher wants to get successful in teaching learning process; he/she should prepare the material as well as possible. The suitable methods help the students in gaining their objective in teaching learning English. Therefore, the writer assumes that using an easy crossword can make the students active and creative in teaching learning process and it can increase the students’ motivation in teaching learning English. On the other hand, by using an easy crossword the students are more active and easier in mastering vocabulary.
Concerning the theories and analysis the researcher formulated a hypothesis as follow:
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