Contoh Skripsi Chapter II Tentang Word Pyramid dan Vocabulary Mastery
THE FRAME OF THEORIES, THINKING AND HYPOTHESIS
2.1 Frame of Theories
2.1.1 Teaching and Learning English as a Foreign Language
Nowadays, English is very important to be taught from very beginning levels such as kindergarten and elementary school. The students’ English mastery in spoken and written form which is relevant to the development of the global era in improving science, technology, and culture.
According to (Evans 1986: 11) that, “several hundred million people use one or another form of English in their daily working and language demands of higher scientific, technical or commercial and industrial topics with both accuracy and interest has also ensured that English is a universal tool of communication. It is clear that English has an important role in improving the social science and humanities of the country since it functions as an international language. That is why the government makes a great effort by designing a new curriculum to support the English subject to be taught in school. According to (Fries, 1973), “the goal of teaching English as the foreign language is defined as the ability to use the target language, understand its meaning and connotation in term of the target language and culture. The ability to understand the speech and writing of the target language and culture in term their meaning as well as ideas and achievement.”
The purpose of teaching English as a foreign language is to enable the students to communicate with one another by using English. Teaching English as a foreign language is not the same as teaching English as a second language. Teaching English as a foreign language is teaching the students in learning the target language in order to be able to use the target language, in this case, English for communication. The learners are expected to be able to express their idea, though, and feelings in English. The learners do not use English outside of the classroom, they just use English when they have English class. Consequently, learners do not have many opportunities to practice English in their daily activities. Learning and teaching English as a foreign language need the real situation to support the learners to use English naturally. The teacher should bring the real situation in the classroom by giving activities that support students to practice English.
Based on the statement above the writer concluded that the purpose of English as a Foreign Language in the class is created by the teachers who taught by the suitable media that can bring into the class and make the situation of teaching and learning process more enjoyable. It is wrong that the activities in learning English as Foreign Language do not support the student or the learners to practice English for communication. They just learn and listen to the teacher’s explanations do the drills, repetitively and answer the questions given by the teacher. They do not have a chance to use the language that they have learned for real communication.
The method of teaching is introducing students and gives facilities which makes the students can study to adjust the condition in the teaching-learning process. (Brown, 2004: 21)
Based on the statement above, it is important for the teacher to provide the facilities or media for teaching and learning process. The teacher should use the facilities that support the technique of teaching English that based on the real situation that the students can apply and practice the language freely and naturally.
2.1.2 Concept of Vocabulary
According to (Webster, 1988:110), vocabulary is a list of the word usually arranged alphabetically and defined, explained or translated into the range of language the stock of words at person demand or use in particular work, a branch of the subject.
Based on the statement above, the writer concluded that vocabulary is essential to learn a language because whenever we think of language and language learning we usually think of mastery vocabulary, therefore, vocabulary is vital to the language because it would be impossible to learn the language. We have known that vocabulary together with pronunciation and structure is language component it can not be separated from the language, so we have to teach vocabulary in context because sometimes, English word has more one meaning by having enough vocabulary it will be easier for student’s in comprehending the text and in expressing ideas in speaking and writing.
(Robert Lado, 1980:185), gives a definition of active and passive vocabulary as follows:
“An active speaking vocabulary means that a unit can be recalled almost instantaneously, put into sound through articulation of its phonemes, place in its proper stress and intonation frame, into it’s inflectional and derivational affixes and accord with the context the passive reading vocabulary requires only grasping the meaning from its partly redundant context.”
Someone uses their vocabulary in their daily conversation means that they have an active vocabulary in passive reading that has repetition in the context. It means that they have the passive vocabulary. We learn vocabulary to know the meaning of words, to understand the meaning of the words. We do not just remember or write the words hat the teacher gives. So in learning vocabulary, we should use the words in learning to speak and writing English.
Wallace states, “Learning of foreign language basically a matter of learning the vocabulary of language not being able to find the words you need to express yourself is the most frustrating experience in speaking another language. (Wallace, 1983:9)
Based on the statement above, the writer assumed that learning a foreign language is the basic language we should understand the meaning of their vocabulary because if we do not understand vocabulary, it will be difficult for us.
Furthermore, (Faerch, 1984: 100) stated it is in fact, more accurate to view vocabulary knowledge as a continuum between the ability to make sense of words and the ability to activate the words automatically for productive purpose. He also states that to fully know a foreign language thus requires that learner:
- Is able to recognize it in is spoken and written form.
- Is able to recall it at will?
- Is able to relate it to appropriate objects or concept (i, e, knows the full meaning potential of the word and not just one specific meaning).
- Can use it in the appropriate grammatical forms.
- Liable to pronounce it in a recognizable way.
- Can spell it correctly.
- Knows in what ways it can combine with other words.
- Know the relation between the word and another word within a lexical set (hyponym, antonym, etc).
- Is aware of its connotation and association, and
- Can use it on the appropriate level of formality and in the appropriate situation.
In order, the teacher should provide students a lot of opportunities to make sentences and to use English for communication based on the English vocabulary they have learned, so that the students may develop their vocabulary rapidly.
(Brown, 1994:366) puts forward some guideline for vocabulary instructional as follows:
- Allocate specific class time to vocabulary learning. In the hustle and bustle of our interactive classroom sometimes we get so caught up in lively group work and meaningful communication that we do not pause to devote some attention to words.
- Help the student to learn vocabulary in context the best internalization of vocabulary, comes from encounters (comprehension and prediction) with words within the context of surround dry discourse.
- Play down the role of the bilingual dictionaries.
- Encourage students to the development strategies for determining the meaning of words.
(Kustarjo, 1988) said that there are five ways of teaching vocabulary:
- Teaching vocabulary through creativity. It is mean that a teacher should allow the students to decide what they want to learn. A teacher can use such technique which enables the students to be creative in producing the vocabulary such realia, picture, puzzle games, etc.
- Teaching vocabulary through derivation which involves noun, verb, adjective, and adverb, for example, to the word (verb), worker (noun) etc.
- Teaching vocabulary trough translation. This method is considered an enceinte one. Here the teacher teaches the meaning of the word through translation. For example, the word “lovely” in Indonesia means “Indah”.
- Teaching vocabulary through guessing, here the teacher can encourage the students to guess first and then consult their dictionary. To guess right, students have a good rationale. The teacher can draw five pictures on the board. The teacher then pronounces a word and asks one the students to point to of one the pictures. Students’ think of relevant to the word pronounces by the teacher.
- Teaching vocabulary through context clues. Here the teacher can use context clues in word recognition by figuring out the meaning of a word based on the clues in the context, for example, by giving a synonym, antonym, etc.
There are some ways in teaching vocabulary base on (Thornby, 2002):
Knowing the word is one thing, in learning their first language the first words that children learn are typically those used for labeling.
In other words, acquiring a vocabulary requires not only labeling but categorizing skill. The child needs to realize that common words can be replaced by superordinate terms and that it can accommodate other lower order words.
Network Building is constructing a complex web of words include of interconnected.
(Kustarjo, 1988) says that there are five ways of teaching vocabulary:
- Teaching vocabulary through creativity. The teacher should allow the student to decide what they want to learn. The teacher can make such technique which enables the student to be creative in producing vocabulary such as picture, puzzle, game, etc.
- Teaching vocabulary through derivation which involves noun, verb, adjective, and adverb. For example: to work (verb), worker (noun), etc.
- Teaching vocabulary through translation. This method is considered as ancient one, here the teacher teaches the meaning of the word through translation. For example, the word lovely in Indonesian means Indah.
- Teaching vocabulary through guessing. Here the teacher can encourage the student to guess first and then consult with their dictionary. To guess right, a student should have a good rationale. The teacher can draw five pictures on the board, then pronounced a word and ask one of the students to point one of the pictures. The students should think something that has relevance to the word that pronounced by the teacher.
From guideline above, in order to make students more enthusiastic about learning vocabulary and the teacher should active and creative invite students more enjoyable in learning English. In this case, Word Pyramid Game is very helpful for the teacher to do her activity. So the writer thinks that the teacher can create some appropriate situation in teaching vocabulary. This means that the teacher not only gives material but can also make the teaching-learning process live enjoyable can also be accepted by the students.
2.1.3 Concept of Teaching Vocabulary
The students always find the problem in mastering the vocabulary. Because of that, the teacher should find a suitable way in teaching learning process in order to make the students desire and to give the motivation to learning.
There some types of vocabulary in English. (Fries, 1974) classified English word into four groups, namely:
- The content word represents the name of the object or thing. That is a concrete noun cat, (this is a nice cat). The action did by or with these things, (The dog barks loudly). Eat (the horse eat grass), and the qualities of the things, that is adjectives, e.g. tame (sheep is the tame animal), fat (this elephant is fat).
- Function words are those words which are used as a means of expressing the relation of grammatical structure, such as conjunction, e.g. and, but, or. Article e.g. a, an, the auxiliaries e.g. do, does, did.
- Substitute words those which represent individual things or specific action as substitutes, e.g. anybody, anyone. (Does anyone like a flower?)
- Distributed words, those are distributed in use to grammatical matter as the presence or absence of a negative, such as any, either, too, or yet. e.g. (The cat is too big), (we see many animals in the zoo).
Teaching vocabulary through context clues. Here the teacher can use context clues in word recognition by figuring out the meaning of a word based on the clues in the context. For example: by giving the synonym, antonym and etc.
2.1.4 Concept of Game
(Jill, 1990) “The emphasis in the game is on successful communication rather than connect ness of language.” Games are activities with the rule, a goal and an element of fun. Games, therefore, are found at the fluency end of the fluency-accuracy spectrum. This raises the questions of how and where they should be used in the class. The game should be regarded as an integral part of the language syllabus. Games are competition among players, which the children can learn to play to get information, make creative, motivated, and make the students interest with the technique of strategy game that the teacher gives. Teaching learning process by using game would seem easier because the game can be applied to all students’ level from children to the adult student.
It means that the game can be used to leads the student in learning the process as long as the game does not make them feel bored in teaching learning activity.
(Petter and Valls 1985:1) said that game has educational value, which goes beyond the foreign language lesson. They teach children about nature cooperative since they require a great variety of strategies. There are various types of language games available for teaching vocabulary at junior high school. They are:
- Board Game
- Word Pyramid Game
- An Easy Crossword
- Picture Cards
The games are very useful and interesting to be applied when the students feel bored in learning vocabulary.
It means a teaching-learning process using game can motivate students to think and make the students active in learning.
2.1.5 Concept of Word Pyramid Game
Word Pyramid Game is a free online single player word game. Online means that playing by using internet connection. The players begin with two letters at the top of the pyramid. On each word, the players have to add another letter and rearrange them to form a new word to try and fill up the word pyramid. The aim of the game is to try and score as many points as the players can by filling word pyramids.
The aim of the game is to try and score as many points as the player can by filling word pyramids. For example, if the player has been given the letters T and R in the two letter word slot then you could add the letter A and rearrange them to make ART, RAT or TAR for your next word, or add the letter O and rearrange them to make ROT. Continue doing this and try to fill as much as the pyramid as you can.
Two example completed pyramids are shown below:
TR (starting letters)
ROT (added R)
SORT (added S)
STORE (added E)
OTTERS (added O)
POTTERS (added P)
EA (starting letters)
ERA (added R)
DARE (added D)
DREAM (added M)
ROAMED (added O)
COMRADE (added C)
A word puzzle in which interlocking words are entered usually pyramid into a grid based on clues given for each word. Word Pyramid Game is crossword with pictures as hits or definitions as hits for studying English vocabulary. This game is played by filling the white squares with letters, this game is needed more than one student so that, it can help the student to compete with another student and will make them enjoy and fun.
In conclusion, by applying Word Pyramid Game the students will try to be more active and creative to reinforce their vocabulary that has been taught. So it is hoped this game can help students to increase their vocabulary.
2.1.6 The Procedures of Teaching Vocabulary
The Procedures of Teaching Vocabulary are:
- The teacher explains the meaning of word pyramid game and how to play word pyramid game.
- The teacher distributes a copy of worksheet to each student.
- Moreover, they fill the white pyramid squares with letters. He/she must give a correct letter.
- Find the player that has answered correctly and given him/her a gift. Moreover, find the player that has answered incorrectly and give him/her punish.
2.1.7 The Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Word Pyramid Game
The advantages of using word pyramid game are:
- Students are motivated to think actively
- Teaching by using game makes the students increasing learning English unconsciously
- The teaching-learning process becomes more interesting and enjoyable
- Give the students the opportunity to express their skills
- Know how far the students’ mastery of vocabulary had been taught
The disadvantages of using word pyramid game are:
- The teacher will be difficult to control the class
- The class will be crowded
2.1.8 The Frame of Thinking
Every teacher wants to get successful in teaching learning process; he/she should prepare the material as well as possible. The suitable methods help the students in gaining their objective in teaching learning English. Therefore, the writer assumes that using word pyramid game can make the students active and creative in the teaching-learning process and it can increase the students’ motivation in teaching learning English. On the other hand, by using word pyramid game the students are more active and easier in mastering vocabulary.
2.1.9 The Hypothesis
Concerning the theories and analysis, the researcher formulated the hypothesis.
In teaching word pyramid game made the student more understand about vocabulary. And they can use vocabulary in write or oral situation. So the students’ vocabulary mastery is sufficient in understanding about vocabulary. Beside word, pyramid game has a significant influence on students’ ability in learning vocabulary.